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ⓘ Élmu komputer. Pikeun kaperluan praktis, élmu komputer kaasup ogé topik-topik anu aya hubunganana jeung komputer, tina hal saperti analisa algoritma abstrak, fo ..



Élmu komputer
                                     

ⓘ Élmu komputer

Pikeun kaperluan praktis, élmu komputer kaasup ogé topik-topik anu aya hubunganana jeung komputer, tina hal saperti analisa algoritma abstrak, formal grammars, jeung salian ti eta, nepi ka subyék anu kongkrit saperti programming language, software, jeung hardware komputer. Sabagé disiplin élmu, loba bédana jeung matematik, programming, rékayasa software, sarta rékayasa komputer, sanajan kadang-kadang ngabingungkeun. Edsger Dijkstra nyebutkeun yén:

"Computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes."

Dilengkepan ku physicist Richard Feynman nyebutkeun:

"Computer science is not as old as physics; it lags by a couple of hundred years. However, this does not mean that there is significantly less on the computer scientists plate than on the physicists: younger it may be, but it has had a far more intense upbringing!"

Tesis Church-Turing thesis nyebutkeun yén sakabéh tipe paradigma kanyaho anu reasonable tina komputasi mangrupa hal anu sarua pentingnya salila bisa ngagawekeun sanajan aya variasi efisien dina waktu jeung ruang. Tesis ieu lain téorema matematika anu bisa dibuktikeun, tapi a statement based on empirical observation that two distinct computational schemes do in fact have the same computational power. This thesis is a fundamental principle of computer science.

Most reséarch in computer science has been related to von Neumann computers or Turing machines computers that do one small, deterministic task at a time. These modéls resemble most réal computers in use today. Computer scientists also study other kinds of machines, some practical like parallel machines and some théoretical.

Computer scientists study what programs can and cannot do see computability and artificial intelligence, how programs should efficiently perform specific tasks see algoritma, how programs should store and retrieve specific kinds of information see data structures and data bases, and how programs and péople should communicate with éach other see human-computer interaction and user interfaces.

Computer science has roots in electrical engineering, mathematics and linguistics. In the last third of the 20th century computer science has become recognized as a distinct discipline and has developed its own methods and terminology.

The first computer science department in the United States was founded at Purdue University in 1962. The University of Cambridge in England, among others, taught CS prior to this, however at the time, CS was seen as a branch of mathematics, and not a separate department. Cambridge claims to have the worlds oldest taught qualification in computing. Most universities today have specific departments devoted to computer science.

The highest honor in computer science is the Turing Award.

                                     

1. Lapang nu patali

Élmu komputer deukeut patalina jeung sawatara wilangan lapang séjénna. Lapang-lapang éta kacida pentingna, sanajan aya sababaraha kapentingan nu béda-béda.

  • Pemprograman komputer atawa pangwangunan piranti-lunak nyaéta nyusun/nulis kodeu program.
  • Sistem informasi SI nyaéta aplikasi komputasi pikeun ngadukung kalangsungan organisasi: pangoperasian, pamasangan, jeung parawatan komputer, piranti lunak, jeung data.
  • Rékayasa piranti lunak nganekenkeun analisis, parancangan, konstruksi, jeung pangujian kana piranti-piranti lunak nu mangfaat. Rékayasa piranti lunak kaasup cara-cara pangwangunnan di antarana modél air-terjun jeung pemprograman ékstrém jeung pangalolaan projék.
  • Linguistika nyaéta pangajian ngeunaan basa, konvergén sarua museurna jeung élmu komputer dina wilayah-wilayah parancangan bahasa pemprograman jeung prosésing bahasa alami.
  • Élmu informasi nyaéta pangajian ngeunaan data jeung informasi, kaasup cara nganafsirkeun, nganalisis, neundeun, jeung nyokotna. Élmu Informasi dimimitian ku mangrupa yayasan analisis ilmiah ngeunaan komunikasi jeung basis data.
  • Sistem informasi pangalolaan SIP nyaéta lapangan bagéan tina sistem informasi, nu nekenkeun kana pangalolaan pagawe jeung kauangan.
  • Leksikografi jeung leksikografi nu dikhusukeun museurkeun regepan kana pangajian karya-karya rujukan leksikografik jeung ogé kaasup pangajian éléktronika jeung kamus nu dumasar-Internét.
  • Logika nyaéta sistem nalar resmi, jeung prinsip-prinsip pangajian nu aya dina dasar-dasar mesin nalar/komputasi, boh nyaéta piranti heuras logika digital atawa tingkatan-tingkatan piranti lunak pamariksaan, AI jeung sajabana. Cabang lapangan logika disebut logika komputabilitas nyadiakeun jawaban nu sistematik pikeun patanyaan-patanyaan nu dasar-pisan ngeunaan naon nu bisa dikomputasi jeung kumaha carana.
  • Matematika méré ka lapangan séjén téhnik-téhnik jeung topik-topik ngeunaan élmu komputer, tapi leuwih umum. Dina sababaraha citarasa, ÉS mangrupa matematika-na komputasi.
  • Kaamanan informasi nyaéta analisis jeung terapan kaamanan sistem informasi, kaasup kriptografi.
  • Rekayasa komputer nyaéta analisis, parancangan, jeung konstruksi piranti heuras komputer.
                                     

2. Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer

Tatapakan matematika

  • Téori grafik
  • Téori émbaran
  • Aljabar Boolean
  • Logika simbolik
  • Matematikan diskret
  • Probabilitas jeung statistika

Computer systems organization

see also electrical engineering

  • Distributed computing
  • Computer networks
  • Computer architecture
  • Performance of systems
  • Computer system implementation
                                     

2.1. Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer Tatapakan matematika

  • Téori grafik
  • Téori émbaran
  • Aljabar Boolean
  • Logika simbolik
  • Matematikan diskret
  • Probabilitas jeung statistika
                                     

2.2. Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer Hardware

tingali ogé rékayasa listrik

  • Struktur mémori
  • Struktur kontrol jeung pamrograman mikro
  • Integrated circuits
  • Aritmatika jeung Struktur logis
  • input/output and Data communications
  • Logic Design
  • VLSI design
  • Performance and reliability
                                     

2.3. Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer Computer systems organization

see also electrical engineering

  • Distributed computing
  • Computer networks
  • Computer architecture
  • Performance of systems
  • Computer system implementation
                                     

2.4. Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer Software

  • Computer program and Computer programming
  • Program verification
  • Parallel Programming
  • Program specification
  • Structured programming
  • Software metrics
  • Software engineering
  • Documentation
  • Configuration management and Software Configuration Management SCM
  • Design patterns
  • Object orientation
  • Programming techniques
  • Optimization
  • Lexical analysis
  • Parsing
  • Compilers
  • Operating Systems
  • Programming languages
                                     

2.5. Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer Data and information systems

  • Data recovery
  • Data encryption
  • Data storage representations
  • Coding and Information theory
  • Data compression
  • Data structures
  • File formats
  • Files
  • Databases
  • Information Interfaces and Presentation
  • Information systems
  • Information Storage and retrieval
                                     

2.6. Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer Computing methodologies

  • Speech recognition
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Image processing and computer vision
  • Symbolic and Algebraic manipulation
  • Computer graphics
  • Pattern recognition
  • Simulation and Modeling
  • Digital signal processing
  • Document and text processing
                                     

2.7. Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer Computer applications

  • Customer relationship management
  • Administrative data processing
  • Enterprise resource planning
  • Automated theorem proving
  • Numerical analysis
  • Mathematical software
  • Computer algebra systems
  • Computational chemistry
  • Computational physics
  • Physical science and Engineering
  • Bioinformatics
  • Medical informatics
  • Computational Biology
  • Life and medical sciences
  • Arts and Humanities
  • Usability engineering
  • Human-computer interaction
  • Robotics
  • Social and behavioral sciences
  • Computer-aided engineering
  • Speech synthesis
                                     

2.8. Widang-widang utama anu penting dina élmu komputer Computing milieux

  • Computers and society
  • Computer industry
  • Computers and education
  • Computer supported cooperative work
  • History of computing hardware
  • Legal aspects of computing
  • Free software and Open Source
  • Computer and information security
  • Management of computing and Information systems
  • Personal computing
                                     

3. Prominent pioneers in computer science

  • John von Neumann for devising the von Neumann architecture upon which most modérn computers are based.
  • Ada Lovelace, contemporary of Charles Babbage, famous for her Sketch of the Analytical Engine, an analysis of Babbages work; the namesake for the modérn computer language, Ada.
  • James W. Cooley and John W. Tukey The Fast Fourier Transform and its impact on scientific reséarch.
  • Charles Babbage, Designed and built a prototype for a mechanical calculator; designed, but never built, the more powerful Analytical Engine.
  • William Kahan for the IEEE floating-point standard. Perhaps this reference should be moved to hardware engineering.
  • James H. Wilkinson The technique of "backward error analysis" and advances in the field of matrix computations. Wilkinson was also a principal mover in the development of the Pilot ACE, the first British computer, in the late 1940s. See more on Wilkinson in the MacTutor Biographies.
  • Claude E. Shannon for information theory.
  • John Backus Invention of FORTRAN For mula Tran slation, the first practical high-level programming language and the Backus-Naur form for describing formal language syntax.
  • C.A.R Hoare for the development of the formal language Communicating Sequential Processes CSP and Quicksort.
  • Kenneth Iverson Inventor of APL, for his contribution to interactive computing.
  • Edsger Dijkstra for algorithms, Goto considered harmful, rigor, and pedagogy.
  • Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard, inventors of the proto-object oriented language SIMULA.
  • Maurice Wilkes for building the first practical stored program computer to be completed, and credited with the idéas of several high-level programming language constructs.
  • Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, for doing pioneer work in the 1940s, one of the first to recognize the necessity for higher level programming languages, or what she termed automatic programming. She wrote the A-O compiler. Her idéas héavily influenced the COBOL language.
  • Alan Turing for computability theory, pioneering work in the field of Artificial Intelligence, and for the design of the Pilot ACE.
  • Donald Knuth for The Art of Computer Programming series.
  • Konrad Zuse Builder of a binary computer in the 1930s, for which he allegedly devised a théoretical high level programming language, Plankalkül.

See list of computer scientists for many more notables.



                                     

4. Tempo ogé

  • Online computations and algorithms
  • List of computing topics
  • Internét
  • History of computing
  • Computing
  • Computer slang
  • Computer numbering formats
  • List of important publications in computer science
  • Computing analogies
  • Benchmark
  • Computer jargon
  • Sensor network
  • IEEE John von Neumann Medal
  • Multimédia
  • Jejer élmu komputer, daptar nu leuwih lengkep
  • Jejer dasar élmu komputer
  • Data acquisition
  • Turing Award ACM
  • History of computing hardware
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