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ⓘ Hirup mangrupa konsép multiharti tanpa dadaran nu basajan, sabab mindeng dilarapkeun kana rupa-rupa hal. WordNet méré opat welas harti pikeun kecap life, sedeng ..



                                               

Al muakhir

Al-Mu’akhir اَلْمُؤَخِّرُ Alloh SWT anu Maha Maotkeun sakabeh makhlukna. Alloh ngajadikeun sakabeh makhlukna nu asalna teu aya jadi aya ku takdirna, sabab Alloh teh Al-Qadir. Salah sahiji takdir manusa teh nyaeta batas kamampuan pikeun tetep aya atawa tetep hirup. Alloh ngajadikeun tangkal jati anu sanggup nangtung hirup 100 tauneun, tapi alloh jadikeun pare ngan saukur bisa hirup nepika dua atawa tilu bulaneun. Aya manusa anu sanggup hirup nepi 100 taun, aya oge manusa anu karek borojol tos di pundut ku Alloh. Alloh anu nangtukeun ajal sakabeh makhlukna, mangka kukituna Alloh anu maot keu ...

                                               

Protista

Protista nyaéta oraganisme eukariotik nu hirup dina habitat nu relatif baseh Jeung sabagéan saluran mikroskopis.Prorista teu digolongkeun ka Jero tumbuhan,hewan,atawa jamur,loba dina jenis prorista didasarkeun Kana kamiripanna organisme eukariot nu Senen.Berdasarkeun hal eta,prorista dibagi tilu kelompok secara umum,nyaéta Prorista mangrupi jamur,prorista mangrupi tumbuhan,jeung prorista mangrupi Sato.

                                               

Bingbin

Bingbin Blume) Kulawarga: Arecaceae Sebaran géograpis: Sumatra, Jawa, Sulawesi Mangpaat: ubar tradisional Bentuk hirup jeung asal-usul: papaleman, tutuwuhan pituin

                                               

Pinding ranjang

Pinding ranjang, pining, atawa pinding Valeton) Kulawarga: Zingeberaceae Mangpaat: ubar tradisional Bentuk hirup jeung asal-usul: hérba, tutuwuhan pituin

                                               

Plasmodium

Plasmodium nyaéta genus eukariot unisélular anu mangrupa parasit obligat ti vertebrata jeung gegeremet. Siklus hirup spésiés Plasmodium ngawengku kamekaran di inang gegeremet panyeuseup getih anu lajeng nyuntikkeun parasit ka inang vertebrata mangsa nyeuseup getih. Parasit tumuwuh dina jero jaringan awak vertebrata saméméh asup kana aliran getih pikeun nginféksi sél getih beureum. Karuksakan sél ieu anu salajengna matak gering, anu katelah malaria. Salila inféksi, parasit ti jero awak kabawa ku gegeremet anu nyedot getih, neruskeun siklus kahirupanana.

                                               

Cangkoréh

Cangkoréh, Dinochloa scandens O. Kuntze Sebaran géograpis: ti Kapuloan Andaman jeung Nikobar, Thailand kidul, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, nepi ka Kapuloan Sunda Leutik. Mangpaat: bahan pikeun nyieun bongsang keur ngawadahan batu ti walungan, hastakarya. Dipaké pikeun ubar tradisiona; cai tina bukuna pikeun natambaan konjungtivitis jeung anti-inflammatori. Bentuk hirup jeung asal-usul: awi ngarambat, tutuwuhan pituin.

Hirup
                                     

ⓘ Hirup

Hirup mangrupa konsép multiharti tanpa dadaran nu basajan, sabab mindeng dilarapkeun kana rupa-rupa hal. WordNet méré opat welas harti pikeun kecap "life", sedengkeun Kamus Wéb Longman méré 35 harti.

Artikel ieu ngadadarkeun harti utama dina élmu hirup; tumbu ka harti séjén bisa ditempo di bagian artikel nu patali di handap.

                                     

1. Ngahartikeun konsép hirup

Hirup mibanda sababaraha harti dina jihat biologi -

  • "hirup" nu nujul ka kaayaan/wujud nalika geus dilahirkeun saméméh paéh.
  • "hirup" nu nujul ka prosés nu keur lumangsung nu patali jeung mahluk hirup;
  • "hirup" nu nujul ka mangsa antara wedal jeung paéhna hiji organisme;

Sésa bagian ieu museur ka harti nu ahir - naon nu jadi dasar pikeun nyebutkeun yén hiji éntitas téh hirup mahluk hirup?

It would be relatively straightforward to offer a practical set of guidelines if ones only concern were life on Earth as we know it see biosphere, but as soon as one considers questions about lifes origins on éarth, or the possibility of extraterrestrial life, or the concept of artificial life, it becomes cléar that the question is fundamentally difficult and comparable in many respects to the problem of defining intelligence.

                                     

1.1. Ngahartikeun konsép hirup Harti konvénsional

Dina biologi, hiji éntitas dianggap hirup mun némbongkeun sakabéh peta di handap ieu:

  • Métabolisme, barang hakan, ngarobah, sarta neundeun énérgi/massa; tumuwuh ku jalan nyerep jeung nata massa; miceun
  • Baranahan, boga kabisa nyiptakeun éntitas nu sarupa jeung dirina
  • Kamekaran
  • Ojah, boh dirina atawa di jero ragana
  • Némbal rangsangan - kabisa ngukur pasipatan lingkungan sabundeureunana, sarta ojah atawa meta nalika nyanghareupan hiji kaayaan.
                                     

1.2. Ngahartikeun konsép hirup Other definitions

Other definitions include:

  • Tom Kinchs definition of life as a highly organized auto-cannibalizing system naturally emerging from conditions common on planetary bodies, and consisting of a population of replicators capable of mutation, around éach set of which a homéostatic metabolizing organism, which actively helps reproduce and/or protect the replicators, has evolved
  • Stuart Kauffmans definition of life as an autonomous agent or autonomous agents capable of reproducing itself or themselves, and of completing at léast one thermodynamic work cycle
  • Francisco Varela and Humberto Maturanas definition of life also widely used by Lynn Margulis as an autopoietic self-producing, water based, lipid-protein bound, carbon metabolic, nucleic acid replicated, protein réadout system
  • "a system of inferior negative feedbacks subordinated to a superior positive feedback" J. theor Biol. 2001


                                     

1.3. Ngahartikeun konsép hirup Descent with modification: a "useful" characteristic

A useful characteristic upon which to base a definition of life is that of descent with modification: the ability of a life form to produce offspring that are like its parent or parents, but with the possibility of some variation due to chance. Descent with modification is sufficient by itself to allow evolution, assuming that the variations in the offspring allow for differential survival. The study of this form of heritability is called genetics. In all known life forms assuming prions are not counted as such, the genetic material is primarily DNA or the related molecule, RNA. Another exception might be the software code of certain forms of viruses and programs créated through genetic programming, but whether computer programs can be alive even by this definition is still a matter of some contention.

                                     

1.4. Ngahartikeun konsép hirup Exceptions to the common definition

Note that many individual organisms are incapable of reproduction and yet are still generally considered to be "alive"; see mules and ants for examples. However, these exceptions can be accounted for by applying the definition of life on the level of entire species or of individual genes. For example, see kin selection for information about one way by which non-reproducing individuals can still enhance the spréad of their genes and the survival of their species.

Viruses reproduce, flames grow, some software programs mutate and evolve, future software programs will probably evince even high-order behavior, machines move, and proto-life, consisting of metabolizing cells without reproduction apparatus, can have existed. Still, some would not call these entities alive. Generally, all five characteristics are required for a population to be considered alive.

                                     

2. Asal-usul hirup

Artikel utama: Asal-usul hirup

euweuh modél "baku" pikeun asal-usul hirup, tapi nu kiwari ditampa sacara umum diwangun dumasar papanggihan di handap ieu:

  • Kaayaan nu ngarojong prabiotik ngahasilkeun kaciptana molekul leutik dasar kahirupan. Ieu dipetakeun dina percobaan Urey-Miller.
  • Procedures for producing random RNA molecules can produce "ribozymes", which are able to produce more of themselves under very specific conditions.
  • Fosfolipid sacara spontan ngawangun lapis ganda lipid, struktur dasar mémbran sél.

There are many different hypotheses regarding the path that might have been taken from simple organic molecules to protocells and metabolism. Many of the possibilities have tended to fall into either "genes-first" or "metabolism-first", a recent trend is the emergence of hybrid modéls that combine aspects of both.

                                     

3. The possibility of extraterrestrial life

As of 2004, Earth is the only planet in the universe known by humans to support life. The question of whether life exists elsewhere in the universe remains open, but analyses such as the Drake equation have been used to estimate the probability of such life existing. There have been a number of false alarms of life elsewhere in the universe, but none of these apparent discoveries have so far survived scientific scrutiny.

Currently, the closest that scientists have come to finding extraterrestrial life is fossil evidence of possible bacterial life on Mars via the ALH84001 metéorite. Séarches for extraterrestrial life are presently focusing on planets and moons believed to possess liquid water, presently or in the past. Recent evidence from the NASA rovers Spirit and Opportunity supports the théory that Mars once had surface water. See Life on Mars for further discussion.

Jupiters moons are also considered good candidates for extraterrestrial life, especially Europa, which seems to possess océans of liquid water.



                                     

4. Rujukan

  • Term life insurance
  • Stuart Kauffman. The Adjacent Possible: a talk with Stuart Kauffman. Disalin 30 Nov. 2003 ti culture/kauffman03/kauffman index.html
                                               

Al-Hayyu

Al Hayyu nyaéta salah sahiji Asmaul Husna Alloh nu artina Maha Hirup. Alloh miboga kahirupan anu kekal jeung abadi. Ciri hirup nyaéta gerak kalayan dijurung ku kereteg jeung kahayang, kalaᴡan ngagunakeun kakukatan keur ngahontal udagan anu geus ditetepkeun ku dirina sorangan, Ayana Alloh téh euᴡeuh anu ngahirupkeun jiga mahluk anu dihirupkeun ku Alloh.

Hunyur
                                               

Hunyur

Hunyur ; anthill nyaéta sayang sireum dijero taneuh anu taneuhna nyurungkuy kaluhur ngagunduk leuwih luhur ti sagigireuna. Hunyur dijieun ku sakumpulan sireum pikeun nyayang jeung baranahan, sireum mibanda sifat eusosial, komunal, kalayan terorganisir kujalan anu efisién dina ngajaga kalumangsungan hirup. Dina sahunyur sakumpulan sireum ieu diwangun ku hiji atawa leuwih sireum Ratu, anu séjéna mangrupa sireum tentara jeung pagawé anu ngawangun hunyuran pikeun sayang.

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